According to John Owen (The Death of Death in the Death of Christ), a number of Bible passages ‘clearly and distinctly in themselves’ teach definite atonement (i.e. that Christ died for the elect and not for the everyone). Following is Naselli’s summary:-
(1) Gen 3:15. “Christ died for no more than God promised unto him that he should die for. But God did not promise to him all,” but only the woman’s seed, namely, the elect.
(2) Matt 7:23; John 10:14–17; 1 Cor 6:20. On the last day, Jesus will profess to some that he never knew them, yet he laid down his life specifically for those he knew as his own.
(3) Matt 11:25–26. Jesus did not die for those from whom the Father hid the good news according to his good pleasure.
(4) John 10:11, 15–16, 26–29. Not all humans are Jesus’ sheep, that is, the elect. Jesus as a Shepherd laid down his life for the sheep—not “for goats, and wolves, and dogs.” Thus, “plainly he excludes all other” and means exactly the same thing “as if he had said he did it for them only”.
(5) Rom 8:32–34. God’s sending his son to die for the elect is the pinnacle of his expression of love for them. If Jesus died for all humans without exception, then God demonstrates the very same love for reprobates. However, God freely gives “all things that are good” to those for whom Jesus died, and he certainly does not give such things as “faith, grace, and glory” to reprobates. Thus, “we conclude that Christ died not for all.” Christ’s resurrection and intercession “for them for whom he died” affords “two invincible arguments.” First, Jesus’ death has “infallible effects” and “doth infallibly free all them from condemnation for whom he died.” Second, there is a connection “between the death and intercession of Jesus Christ,” that is, Jesus intercedes for those for whom he died. Heb 7:25 affirms that he completely saves those for whom he intercedes. Thus, “it is undeniably apparent that the death
of Christ, with the fruits and benefits thereof, belongeth only to the elect of God”.
(6) Eph 1:7. “If his blood was shed for all, then all must have a share in those things that are to be had in his blood,” including redemption, which is not experienced by all humans without exception.
(7) 2 Cor 5:21; Isa 53:5; John 15:13. If Jesus died for all humans without exception, then they would all be “made the righteousness of God in him” and be saved.
(8) John 17:9, 19. Jesus intercedes for the elect and “not for the world”.
(9) Eph 5:25. Jesus died for “his church,” and “a man’s own wife is the only allowed object of his conjugal affections”.