Peter and Paul

1 Peter has sometimes been regarded as a mere rehash of the teaching of Paul.  However, as Guthrie (New Testament Introduction) observes, there is in the present letter

‘both an absence of such Pauline doctrines as justification, law, the new Adam, and the flesh, and the presence of highly characteristic methods in Peter’s own presentation, such as his copious use of Old Testament citations and moral codes, his church-consciousness, historic consciousness and Christ-consciousness.’

Purpose

‘The keynote of the letter is hope and Peter wishes to exhort these Christians to live in accordance with the hope they have received through Christ. He gives practical guidance to assist in their human relationships and particularly exhorts them to endure suffering in a joyful manner for Christ’s sake.’ (Guthrie)

Date

Guthrie regards a date of AD 62-65 (i.e. during Nero’s reign) as the most likely.  This would, accordingly, have been written at around the time of Paul’s death.  Guthrie further argues for a date prior to AD 64 (when Nero commenced his terrible persecution of Christians), given the conciliatory tone of 1 Pet 2:13-17.  Still, this is not decisive, since ‘the civil administration of the provinces would not immediately be affected by the personal caprice of the emperor.’

1 Peter and Acts

Guthrie notes the following affinities:-

Acts 2:16 ff. and 1 Peter 1:10 for the idea of fulfilment of Old Testament prophecy;
Acts 2:17 and 1 Peter 1:20 for the idea of Christ’s manifestation in the last days;
Acts 2:23 and 1 Peter 1:20 for the fore-ordination by God of the death of Jesus;
Acts 2:24 ff. and 1 Peter 3:19 for the triumph over Hades;
Acts 2:32–36 and 1 Peter 1:21 for the connection between the resurrection and exaltation of Christ.

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