Prayer for All People, 1-8
2:1 First of all, then, I urge that requests, prayers, intercessions, and thanks be offered on behalf of all people, 2:2 even for kings and all who are in authority, that we may lead a peaceful and quiet life in all godliness and dignity.
Requests, prayers, intercessions, and thanks – Milne distinguishes these as follows:
- ‘requests’ are personal prayers made on special occasions for particular needs such as one’s own guidance, help or comfort in a given situation.
- ‘prayers’ is the most general of the terms and refers to all kinds of requests that believers make, but perhaps mostly for general needs that arise. Both terms occur in Philippians 4:6 and 1 Timothy 5:5.
- ‘intercessions’ stands for prayers that are offered on behalf of other people and their known needs; the Holy Spirit and Jesus Christ also make representation on behalf of believers (Romans 8:27, 34).
- ‘thanksgivings’ are prayers of gratitude to God for his many mercies and particular blessings received from above. These two are to be offered on behalf of all sorts of people. Thanksgiving is always required of God’s people (1 Thess. 5:18). (Bulleting added)
‘Some years ago I attended public worship in a certain church. The pastor was absent on holiday, and a lay elder led the pastoral prayer. He prayed that the pastor might enjoy a good vacation (which was fine), and that two lady members of the congregation might be healed (which was also fine; we should pray for the sick). But that was all. The intercession can hardly have lasted thirty seconds. I came away saddened, sensing that this church worshipped a little village god of their own devising. There was no recognition of the needs of the world, and no attempt to embrace the world in prayer.’ (Stott)
First of all, then – This links with what he has just said about the gospel and its defence.
All people – This is emphatic, and in contrast to the exclusivist tendencies of the false teachers.
‘”Philip James Spener had a son of eminent talents, but he was perverse and extremely vicious. All means of love and persuasion were without success. The father could only pray, which he continued to do, that the Lord might yet be pleased to save his son at any time and in any way. The son fell sick, and while lying on his bed in great distress of mind, nearly past the power of speech or motion, he suddenly started up, clasped his hands, and exclaimed, ‘My father’s prayers, like mountains, surround me!’ Soon after his anxiety ceased, a sweet peace spread over his face, his malady came to a crisis, and the son was saved in body and soul. He became another man. Spener lived to see his son a respectable man, in public office, and happily married. Such was the change of his life after his conversion.”‘ (Spurgeon)
For kings and all those in authority – ‘This was a remarkable instruction, since at that time no Christian ruler existed anywhere in the world…The reigning emperor was Nero, whose vanity, cruelty and hostility to the Christian faith were widely known.’ (Stott)
Holiness – better, ‘good conduct’. Paul’s concern is that Christians might be allowed by the (pagan) authorities to witness faithfully and openly to the gospel, for the benefit of all (mentioned in v1.
Paul is saying then, that prayer should be offered to enable the ‘full observance of religion and high standards of morality.’ (NEB)
It is to be noted that the pax romana was a major factor in the early spread of Christianity.
‘The ultimate object of our prayers for national leaders, then, is that in the context of the peace they preserve, religion and morality can flourish, and evangelism go forward without interruption.’ (Stott)
That we may live peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness – ‘Godliness’ translates ‘eusebeia‘; which which roughly corresponds to our popular usage of ‘religion’ (Hendriksen: ‘piety’). Fee thinks that this a word use by the false teachers, which Paul is now using against them.
‘For many scholars, this sounds terribly bourgeois, even selfish. But, again, it probably reflects the activities of the false teachers, who are not only disrupting (“disquieting”) the church(es) but apparently are also bringing the gospel and the church into disrepute on the outside (see esp. 1 Tim 3:7; 5:14; 6:1; cf. Titus 2:5, 8; 3:1–3). The concern here, therefore, is not that Christians should have a life free from trouble or distress (which hardly fits the point of view of 2 Tim. 1:8 and 2 Tim 3:12) but that they should live in such a way that “no one will speak evil of the name of God and of our teaching” (1 Tim 6:1).’ (Fee)
Similarly, Hendriksen says that for Paul ‘freedom from disturbances, such as wars and persecutions, will facilitate the spread of the gospel of salvation in Christ to the glory of God.’
Paul had himself experienced such blessing, as when the Roman officials intervened on his behalf in Ephesus, Acts 19:23ff.
2:3 Such prayer for all is good and welcomed before God our Savior, 2:4 since he wants all people to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth.
He wants all people to be saved –
A knowledge of the truth – ‘Knowing the truth is equivalent to accepting the gospel message and emphasizes the cognitive element in the acceptance. Much of the teaching in the PE is directed not against the truth or falseness of the teaching of the opponents but against their improper conduct and the ungodly results of their teaching. This phrase rounds out Paul’s critique by showing that their teaching, as well as their behavior, is untruthful.’ (Mounce)
2:5 For there is one God and one intermediary between God and humanity, Christ Jesus, himself human, 2:6 who gave himself as a ransom for all, revealing God’s purpose at his appointed time.
There is one God and one mediator between God and men – It is evident that the false teaching in Ephesus included some form of incipient gnosticism. The Gnostics believed (or came to believe) that there were many different ranks of angels and that these acted as mediators between a holy God and sinful men. Jesus Christ was relegated to the position of one of the angels. This verse refutes that position.
Spencer remarks on how Paul’s teaching that there is ‘one God and one mediator’ challenged pagan thinking:- ‘First, many would believe in a variety of gods for a variety of purposes and people. As Artemidorus explained, “What the gods signify for men, goddesses signify for women. Gods are more auspicious for men than goddesses; goddesses are more auspicious for women than gods” (Onir. 4.75). At Ephesus, many would place gods in a hierarchy with Artemis at the top. The temple of Artemis at Ephesus (Artemision) was also renowned as an asylum for the innocent yet simultaneously Artemis could be a slaughterer. Some would think she should be the mediator (1 Tim 2:5). Others would conclude she would not save all (v. 4). In addition, Ephesus had shrines sacred to Zeus, Cybele and Demeter (mother of the gods), Apollo (Artemis’ brother), Asclepius (god of healing), Aphrodite, Dionysus, Hygeia, Pan, Isis, Hecate, Marnas (river god), Leto (Artemis’ mother), Athena, Serapis, Eros, and deified emperors, such as Augustus. Paul, in contrast, asserts that there is only one God who can serve all needs, including salvation, for all people.’
‘There is not one god for Jews and another for Gentiles, or one saviour for the lowly and another for kings. There is one Saviour, one mediator, and one ransom—sufficient for all types of people and available to all.’ (Smith, Claire. God’s Good Design. Matthias Media. Kindle Edition.)
‘Monotheism remains the essential basis for mission. The supreme reason why God “desires all men to be saved and come to the knowledge of the [same] truth is that “there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all…” The logic of this passage rests on the relation between “all men” and “one God”. Our warrant for seeking the allegiance of “all men” is that there is only “one God”, and only “one mediator” between him and them. Without the unity of God and the uniqueness of Christ there could be no Christian mission.’ (Stott, Our Guilty Silence, 23)
‘To claim that Jesus Christ is unique is not to say that there is no truth in other religions and ideologies. Of course there is. For we believe in God’s general revelation and common grace. The Logos of God is still “the true light” coming into the world and enlightening every man, Jn 1:9. All men know something of God’s glory from creation and something of God’s law from their own nature, as Paul argues in Romans 1 and 2. But how does this argument continue? Not that their knowledge of God saves them, but the very opposite! It condemns them because they suppress it. Indeed, “they are without excuse, for although they knew God they did not honour him as God…”
‘It is against this dark background of universal rebellion, guilt and judgment of mankind that the good news of Jesus Christ shines with such dazzling beauty. There is salvation in no other, for there is no other mediator between God and man but only Jesus Christ who died as a ransom for sinners, Acts 4:12; 1 Tim 2:5.
‘Firmly to reject all syncretism in this way and to assert the uniqueness and finality of Jesus Christ is not “doctrinal superiority” or imperialism, as it has been called. Conviction about revealed religion is not arrogance. Its proper name is “stewardship”, the humble and obedient stewardship of a church which knows it has been “put in trust with the Gospel”.’ (Stott, Authentic Christianity, 348)
Verses 5 & 6 link together three phases of Christ’s work of redemption:-
- Incarnate as a human being – ‘the man’
- Died as a ransom – ‘who gave himself as a ransom for all men’
- Exalted as our heavenly mediator – ‘one mediator between God and men’
A ransom for all men – ‘We are to understand this to mean a ransom available for all people, without exception.’ (Grudem, Systematic Theology)
Josephus describes the Roman general Crassus’ visit to the Temple in Jerusalem in 54-53 BC. He was intent on plundering the sanctuary, but a priest named Eliazar gave him a large gold bar as lytron anti panton, ‘a ransom for all’, that is as a substitute for the Temple treasures. (Stott, The Cross of Christ, 178)
2:7 For this I was appointed a preacher and apostle—I am telling the truth; I am not lying—and a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth. 2:8 So I want the men to pray in every place, lifting up holy hands without anger or dispute.
Belleville: ‘It is likely that the women and men at Ephesus were at odds with one another. There were signs of friction. The men were praying in an angry tone of voice (1 Tim 2:8); the women were learning (and perhaps teaching) in a belligerent manner (1 Tim 2:11–12). Paul calls twice for peace and calm (hēsuchia, 1 Tim 2:11–12) and twice for moderation (sōphrosunēs); 1 Tim 2:9, 15).’
I want the men to pray in every place – Note the emphasis (for the moment) on what the men are to do. Paul will address the women shortly.
Note also the strength of language used. Usually Paul ‘urges’, or ‘asks’; here, he commands.
‘In every place’ suggests that the church at Ephesus had flourished sufficiently that it met in several different homes.
Lifting up holy hands – This would have been the usual posture for prayer.
Conduct of Women, 9-15
2:9 Likewise the women are to dress in suitable apparel, with modesty and self-control. Their adornment must not be with braided hair and gold or pearls or expensive clothing, 2:10 but with good deeds, as is proper for women who profess reverence for God.
Likewise – or ‘therefore’ linking this section with the previous one and showing that Paul is still thinking about conduct in public worship. Belleville proposes the following ‘filling in of the grammatical gaps’: “I want men in every place to pray with holy hands.… Likewise [I want] women [in every place to pray] with respectable conduct.…”
There is an assumption, then’ (writes Belleville) that women as well as men were leading public prayer.
The women are to dress in suitable apparel – Although Paul’s words may refer to the way the women dress (writes Belleville), they more likely have to do with a respectful demeanour. ‘Women were to behave as upstanding and respectable citizens…Paul here was not concerned with the first-century equivalent of plunging necklines, tight-fitting clothes, and short skirts. The issue was flaunting one’s wealth in public. The well-to-do came to worship with gold-braided hair, pearls, and expensive clothes (2:9b). In so doing, they drew attention to themselves (2:9) and distracted from worship of God.’
Blomberg agrees that this teaching is addressed especially to the wealthy women at Ephesus, since it is only they who would have been able to afford the luxuries mentioned. The original is lit. ‘not with braided hair and gold or pearls’, suggesting that there might not be anything wrong with braided hair as such, but ‘the ornate coiffure in which jewels were interwoven into the braids, as one way of holding the hair together, involved hours of attention to one’s external appearance and was often accompanied by lavish, costly attire.’ (Neither Poverty Not Riches, p207)
‘Women of the lower economic ranks in the East frequently covered their heads; but the urban congregations of Ephesus would have included women of higher social status, who would flaunt their status by the ornate ways they decorated their hair. To poorer women in the congregation, the wealthier women’s wardrobe represented both ostentation and potential seduction, so Paul rules against it, borrowing language common among moralists of his day.’ (DPL)
Good deeds – ‘On the submission of women, see also Eph 5:22-33; Col 3:18; 1 Tim 5:14; Tit 2:4-5).’ (Belleville)
2:11 A woman must learn quietly with all submissiveness. 2:12 But I do not allow a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man. She must remain quiet.
A woman must learn – This seems to link back to v4, with its reference to coming to ‘a knowledge of the truth’.
Quietly – ‘denotes not an absence of speech but a calm demeanor (cf. 1 Pet 3:4).’ (Belleville)
With all submissiveness – On the submission of women, see also Eph 5:22-33; Col 3:18; 1 Tim 5:14; Tit 2:4-5). But Paul is not referring to a general submissiveness here, but rather to a submissive attitude towards learning.
Claire Smith summarises the NT teaching on submissiveness:- ‘The word that Paul uses here and a related verb meaning ‘submit’ are used often in the New Testament, and in the context of many different types of relationships. Children are to submit to their parents (Luke 2:51; 1 Tim 3:4; cf. Titus 1:6). Slaves are to submit to their masters (Titus 2:9; 1 Pet 2:18-25). Wives are to submit themselves to their husbands (1 Cor 14:34-35; Eph 5:24; Col 3:18; Titus 2:5; 1 Pet 3:1, 5). Christians are to submit to those over them in Christian leadership (1 Cor 16:15-16; 1 Pet 5:5). We are to submit ourselves to God (Jas 4:7), and as part of that God-ward submission, we are to submit to governing authorities (Rom 13:1; Titus 3:1; 1 Pet 2:13).’ Smith adds: ‘However, this language of submission is not limited to human relationships. All things have been subjected and will ultimately submit to Christ (Eph 1:22; Phil 3:21; Heb 2:5, 8; 1 Pet 3:22). Demons submit to the rule of Christ (Luke 10:17). The church is to submit to Christ as her head (Eph 5:24). And when all things have been made subject to him, Christ himself will submit to God the Father (1 Cor 15:27-28).’ (Smith, Claire. God’s Good Design. Matthias Media. Kindle Edition.)
But to whom (or what) are women to be submissive? To the men? To God? To the teaching? The context suggests that the first of these is the case. ‘Learning quietly with all submissiveness’ is one side of the coin; ‘not allowing a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man’ is the other side of the coin. The implication is that women are not to teach or exercise authority over the men in the gathered household of God.
Belleville, however, takes a different view: ‘Some jump to the conclusion that women are being asked to submit either to their husbands or to male leadership. The command, however, is, “let a woman learn” not “let a woman submit.” How she is to learn is Paul’s concern. All too often, the fact is missed that Paul affirms that a woman should be allowed to learn and be instructed. This affirmation is no small thing. While a female student is hardly a novelty today, it was quite unusual in Paul’s day. Girls in the Greco-Roman period were taught the three “Rs.” But higher education past the age of 12, though on the rise, was still not commonplace. The verse may imply submission to a teacher. A submissive spirit was (and is) a necessary prerequisite for learning. This would not eliminate expression of one’s own opinions. It has more to do with a willingness to take direction. On the other hand, the verse may imply “self-restraint” or “self-control” (see note on 2:11). This sense appears in 1 Corinthians 14:32, where Paul states that those “who prophesy are in control of their spirit and can take turns.” In either case, Paul was not questioning a woman’s prerogative to learn as long as she did it “quietly” and “submissively.”’
I do not allow a woman to teach – ‘Significantly, Paul is not saying that women are not competent to teach, or that they may never teach. Elsewhere he encourages women to teach other women and children (Titus 2:3-5; Eph 6:1; cf. 1 Tim 5:9-10), and commends the instruction a church leader received from his mother and grandmother (2 Tim 1:5, 3:14-15). He urges all believers to teach and encourage one another as they sing together (Col 3:16). Women also contribute to the Christian assembly in activities with the potential to teach, such as prophecy and prayer (1 Cor 11:4-5; 14:3-5, 12-19, 24-26, 31).’ Smith, Claire. God’s Good Design. Matthias Media. Kindle Edition.
I do not allow a woman to…exercise authority over a man – ‘Exercise authority’ translates a rare Gk word authentein. To the Greeks of the day, the term meant ‘to domineer’ or to ‘gain the upper hand’, writes Belleville, which argues that this is the meaning here (i.e. Paul is note forbidding the women to take authority, but rather to usurp authority).
Instone-Brewer comments on this word: ‘Recent research has shown that this rare word (authenteō) was normally reserved for extreme situations of domination or manipulation, though in the centuries after the New Testament was written the meaning gradually changed to a gentler “have authority.” This means that earlier English translations (such as the Geneva Bible and KJV) got it about right when they translated it “usurp authority,” whereas some modern ones translate with a gentler phrase such as “have authority.”’
This may mean:-
- that Paul is forbidding a woman to exercise any kind of authority over a man;
- that that he is forbidding a woman to exercise authority over a man in the a church setting. This receives some support from the context, which does emphasise public worship. Noting the close connection here between teaching and exercising authority, Craig Blomberg thinks it likely that this text ‘is not referring to all women being disallowed from all teaching over men or from all exercising of authority over men in the church (notice there are no further contextual limitations as long as we take these as mere activities or functions) but rather from being elders.’
- that he is forbidding a woman to usurp authority (i.e. to seize from a man the authority that is rightfully his). He is concerned that women should not be overbearing (and he would have said the same to men).
- that this prohibition was local and temporary, rather that global and permanent.
- We know that there were false teachers at Ephesus, 1 Tim 1:3-4; 1 Tim 1:6-7. The false teaching led to a disregard for proper decorum in the church, and to a rejection of the institution of marriage, 1 Tim 4:3. Note how Paul addresses young widows, 1 Tim 5:9-15), urging them to marry, raise children, and manage their homes. Neglect of such roles and relationships was leading to these women becoming bossy busybodies, 1 Tim 5:13. It is quite plausible, then, that the women in the Ephesian congregation were either particularly affected by, or even the primary advocates of, the false teaching (see also 2 Tim 3:6-9). So, where Paul has in 1 Tim 1:3 already placed a general prohibition on those who teach false doctrines, he here focuses specifically on the women who have become particularly involved with it. They are to stop advocating ideas that are alien to the Christian faith, and instead ‘learn in quietness and full submission’ (submission, that is, to the elders of the church; although it is to be noted that all learners were expected to adopt an attitude of quietness and submission, cf. 1 Tim 2:2).
- This is the view of Spencer, who explains: ‘In light of the heterodox teaching and learning at Ephesus, Paul highlights the women in particular as needing to learn but not yet teach, most likely because of their unpreparedness in withstanding heterodoxy, a heterodoxy that may have been especially appealing to the women at Ephesus. Paul focuses on teaching because the teacher especially is one who must be qualified to teach the truth and Paul wanted to make sure they understood God’s teachings. However, all women everywhere were not dissuaded from teaching. Prisca, along with her husband Aquila (admired coworkers of Paul), certainly taught Apollos with great accuracy (Acts 18:25–26) and the female elders at Crete were to teach (Titus 2:3). In addition, women had a long history as religious leaders: prophets, wise women, apostles, church overseers, and ministers.’
- Instone-Brewer (Moral Questions of the Bible): ‘Paul concluded that females were uneducated and thereby too gullible to lead a church. His conclusion was sensible, and so was his proposed solution: to educate them. He’d be surprised that women are now well educated but are still often kept out of leadership.’
- Before we jump to the conclusion that this prohibition against women teaching or having authority over a man can be transferred directly into our own time and culture, we should reflect that Paul also appear to require male elders to be married, and to have children who are believers, respectful and obedient (Tit 1:6). He seems to exclude not only women, but also single men, childless married men, and married men with unbelieving, disrespectful, or disobedient children, and so on.
See here for a discussion of this passage by David Atkinson.
She must remain quiet – Not, according to Belleville, ‘in silence’ (AV, RSV), but with a quiet and teachable disposition; with ‘a quiet demeanour’. Cf. 1 Thess 4:11; 2 Thess 3:12.
Spencer notes that such a disposition is encouraged in the OT (see, for example, Prov 17:27f). ‘Hēsychios (adjective), hēsychia (noun), and hēsychazō (verb) in the New Testament always have positive connotations. Hēsychios has positive connotations in 1 Timothy 2:2 when all Christians are encouraged to lead a “quiet” life, a life free from persecution by rulers. In an educational setting, it refers to the state of calm, restraint at the proper time, respect, and affirmation of a speaker. It does not necessarily refer to not speaking. When the circumcision party heard from Peter how the Lord had saved Cornelius and his household, “they were silenced and praised God saying: ‘Then also to the Gentiles God gave repentance that leads to life’ ” (Acts 11:17–18). Thus, the first act they did after they “were silent” was speak!’ Spencer adds that this word group also refers, in both OT (see Isa 66:2, for example) and NT, to calm and rest (as opposed to working and fighting).
2:13 For Adam was formed first and then Eve. 2:14 And Adam was not deceived, but the woman, because she was fully deceived, fell into transgression.
For – ‘“For” can be causal, in which case Paul would be invoking creation order and proneness to deception as reasons why a woman must not teach a man. This is theologically problematic, however. Proneness to deception is something that is endemic to the human race after the Fall. While Paul does assert that all human beings without exception sin (e.g., Rom 3:9–20), at no time does he suggest that women are more susceptible to sin’s deceiving activity than men. In the case of the Ephesian community, it was two men (not women) who were expelled for false teaching that stemmed from personal deception (1:20).’ (Belleville)
Adam was formed first and then Eve – See Gen 2:21f. Belleville does not think that this necessarily implies either male superiority or functional priority. But Paul’s teaching at this point may be intended to provide a corrective to that of the cult of Artemis, whose perceived superiority was linked to her having come out of her mother’s womb first, then helping her mother to give birth to her twin brother.
Adam was not deceived, but the woman – Yes, that also is true, according to Gen 3:13. Adam sinned, but he was not deceived.
Again, Paul’s argument from the created order (see also 1 Cor 11:7-9) has been understood in various ways:-
- It is possible that the argument is ad hoc: if Eve’s deception is appealed to as a reason for all women from teaching, then Paul is arguing that women generally are more easily deceived than men.
- It may be that Paul’s intention is to use Eve to illustrate the local situation in Ephesus, where the women are easily deceived because they are untaught.
‘As Adam has served elsewhere as the representative man, through whose sin all mankind came into sinfulness (Rom. 5:12, 19), so here Eve serves as the “representative” woman, who through her deception by Satan became a sinner (lit., “came to be in transgression”).’ (Fee)
What Paul does appear to be saying is that there is a God-given distinction between the two sexes. This is not to do with intelligence, giftedness, usefulness, and so on, but creational intent. And there are serious practical implications for both men and women. If the latter are to follow Paul’s instructions here, then the men will have to step up to their responsibilities.
2:15 But she will be delivered through childbearing, if she continues in faith and love and holiness with self-control.
Delivered through childbearing –