The Cutting of the Covenant, 1-21

15:1 After these things the word of the LORD came to Abram in a vision: “Fear not, Abram! I am your shield and the one who will reward you in great abundance.”

This chapter marks the beginning of a new phase for Abraham, which will be characterised by the prospect of a son and heir. The fulfilment of the promise, however, is still 25 years and six more chapters away, and there will be further crises of faith recorded in chapters 21 and 22.

This chapter is taken up in two vitally important ways by the NT: firstly, in connection with justification by faith (v6; cf Rom 4:1 ff Gal 3:1 ff); and secondly, in relation to the covenant based on grace rather than on law. (cf Gal 3:17-22)

The word of the Lord – This important phrase is used over 200 times in the OT, but this is the first and only use of it in the Pentateuch. Sometimes, an actual voice was heard, Num 7:8f; 8:1; Dan 4:31; cf Mt 3:17; 17:5; Jn 12:28; Acts 9:4. At other times, no audible voice seems to have been heard, but rather, there was a direct influence upon the mind.

“Do not be afraid” – Abram was having a sleepless and anxious night. It is not difficult to see why he was afraid: he had defeated and humiliated Chedolaomer by overthrowing his vast army with a handful of men. Cruel dictators do not take such things lightly! Moreover, he had just refused the king of Sodom’s offer of a fortune. The prolonged exertion of the battle was followed not only by fear of retaliation, but also by doubt. Had he done the right thing? We too, when we have taken a stand for God, can often be left asking ourselves whether we have done the right thing. Obedience to God, and refusal of worldly things, can often seem foolish.

Once, again, Abram may have been wondering whether he had misunderstood God’s promise. It had been ten years since God had promised him a son, whose descendents would be as numerous as the dust of the earth.

But, once more: Abram’s fear no doubt also stemmed from an overwhelming sense of the presence of God. Indeed, so often when God, or God’s messenger, appears, the first words are ‘fear not’. See Lk 1:13,30 2:10. Think also of the times when Jesus said, ‘Do not be afraid’, Jn 14:1. Cf Rev 1:17.

“…Abram” – The Lord speaks to Abram by name. God has two ways of speaking: to publicly, by his word; and personally, by his Spirit. And these two ways always agree.

“I am your shield” – How often, after the clamour of the battle, do we, like Abraham, need to be reminded that God is our protection? See Heb 13:5-6.

Incidentally, one of the Jewish Targums reads “My word is your strength,” instead of, “I am your shield.” This might be a precusor to John’s use of ‘logos’ in Jn 1:1,14.

“Your very great reward”

15:2 But Abram said, “O sovereign LORD, what will you give me since I continue to be childless, and my heir is Eliezer of Damascus?” 15:3 Abram added, “Since you have not given me a descendant, then look, one born in my house will be my heir!”

“What can you give me?” – Abram’s reply to the reassuring words of the Lord are, in effect, “Yes, but…?” The Lord has just reassured Abram of his protection and reward, yet Abram remained troubled. Had not God also promised him a multitude of descendents? Abram could not conceive how that promise could now be fulfilled.

Abram is trying to adjust to the possibility that he will not have a son after all, but that his servant might become his heir.

It can be good to voice our complaints before God. The Psalms contain many such grievances, when God seems far away, or when evil seems to triumph over good. ‘Though we must never complain of God, yet we have leave to complain to him, and to be large and particular in the statement of our grievances; and it is some ease to a burdened spirit to open its case to a faithful and compassionate friend: such a friend God is, whose ear is always open.’ (M. Henry)

15:4 But look, the word of the LORD came to him: “This man will not be your heir, but instead a son who comes from your own body will be your heir.” 15:5 The LORD took him outside and said, “Gaze into the sky and count the stars—if you are able to count them!” Then he said to him, “So will your descendants be.”

The Lord responds to Abram’s complaint, not with a rebuke, but with the promise restated. The Lord reminds Abram of the promise already recorded in Gen 12:2; 13:15-16. The heir would not be his servant, but “a son coming from your own body”.

“Count the stars” – And every night thereafter when Abram looked up to the heavens, he would be reminded of God’s promise. At this point, however, it might have seemed like a bad joke: “Thousands of descendants? – Just one would be a start!”

“So shall your offspring be” – Understood by the NT as the multitude of believers, both before and after Christ, Rom 4:11-12; 9:7,8.

15:6 Abram believed the LORD, and the LORD considered his response of faith as proof of genuine loyalty.

NIV: ‘and he credited it to him as righteousness.’

This verse is quoted by Paul in Rom 4:3 and Gal 3:6, and also in Jas 2:23.

‘This story and the argument of Romans 4 present faith not as a crowning merit but as readiness to accept what God promises.’ (Kidner). Note also that Abraham’s trust was both in the person (he believed the Lord) and in promises (based on the word of the Lord, vv4,5).

Abram was not justified by his good deeds. He had heeded God’s call to leave his home; his dealings with Lot were kind and generous; he routed the robber-kings with noble courage; he refused to take the spoils of war from Sodom; he gave tithes to Melchizedec – all these, surely, were good works? Yet none of these is mentioned here.

He was not justified by the carrying out of religious rituals and ceremonies. As Paul is at pains to point out, Abram was justified before he was circumcised.

‘Faith in Abram’s case was the sole and unsupported cause of his being accounted righteous, for note, although in other cases Abram’s faith produced good works, and although in every case where faith is genuine it produces good works, yet the particular instance of faith recorded in this chapter was unattended by any works.’ (Spurgeon)

In a way, we can make too much of the faith of ‘mighty men of God’ such as Abram. The wonder is not so much Abram’s trust in God, but the God in whom he put his trust. Abram’s faith was in many ways imperfect: as earlier, when he pretended that Sarah was his sister; and later, when he tries to force the promise by taking Hagar, his wife’s maid. ‘A trembling hand may grasp the cup which bears a healing draught to the lip – the weakness of the hand shall not lessen the power of the medicine.’ (Spurgeon)

Abram believed the Lord – despite (a) the circumstances that now militated against the fulfilment of the promise (his and Sarah’s advancing age, and Sarah’s continuing childlessness); (b) the delay in fulfilment; (c) the few who would have believed; (d) the magnitude of the promise; (e) the further difficulties that would yet lie in the way of complete fulfilment; (f) the weakness of the faith itself; (g) the absence of ‘religious’ acts (circumcision was introduced later, ch.17). So it is with us: church attendance, prayer, and so on, will not by themselves put us in a right relationship with God. It is faith that counts – and actions will then follow as acts of loving gratitude and willing obedience.

We, too, similar threats and difficulties to our belief. We look at the weakness of our own resources, the antagonism of the world, and the onslaughts of the evil one, and we are tempted to despair. But we are taught to trust not in our own faith, but in God’s faithfulness. We lean not on our own understanding, but trust in the word of God, which cannot be shaken.

He credited it to him as righteousness – There are two types of righteousness: that which is accomplished by us by our own efforts, and that which is accounted to us on that basis of belief. Abram would have to wait still further years for the fulfilment of the promise; but he was accepted by God there and then.

What was the promise in which Abraham believed? It was the promise of many descendants, and of one descendant in particular, Jn 8:56 Gal 3:16. ‘He saw Christ by the eye of faith, and then he saw the multitude that should believe in him.’ (Spurgeon)

This verse, which is quoted four times in the NT, (Rom 4:1-3; 9-10,19-24; Gal 3:5-7) presents the essence of the gospel in a nutshell. It demonstrates that the message of the Bible is essentially one.

What has God promised to the Christian believer? Answer – All things. See Mt 5:5; Jn 3:34; Rom 8:32; 1 Cor 2:9-11; 2 Cor 1:18-22; Eph 1:3;

Has God secured his promise to us with a covenant, a binding agreement? Answer – Yes.

15:7 The LORD said to him, “I am the LORD who brought you out from Ur of the Chaldeans to give you this land to possess.” 15:8 But Abram said, “O sovereign LORD, by what can I know that I am to possess it?”

“…who brought you out of Ur…” – the word here is also used of the slaves being rescued from Egypt, Ex 20:2, suggesting within the present passage the faint hint of an otherwise undisclosed reason why Abraham and his father left Ur.

15:9 The LORD said to him, “Take for me a heifer, a goat, and a ram, each three years old, along with a dove and a young pigeon.” 15:10 So Abram took all these for him and then cut them in two and placed each half opposite the other, but he did not cut the birds in half. 15:11 When birds of prey came down on the carcasses, Abram drove them away.

It was common practice in those days for a contract to be made by the sacrificial cutting of animals, with the split carcasses laying on the ground. Then both parties would walk through the animal parts together, repeating the terms of the covenant as they did so. The symbolism is clear: ‘May I be cut asunder, just like these animals, if I break the terms of this covenant. Jer 34:18-20 refers to the same kind of covenant-making.

15:12 When the sun went down, Abram fell sound asleep, and great terror overwhelmed him.

At the end of the day, the Lord had still not appeared to seal the covenant. Abram fell into a deep sleep and it seems that the Lord appeared to him in a dream.

15:13 Then the LORD said to Abram, “Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a foreign country. They will be enslaved and oppressed for four hundred years. 15:14 But I will execute judgment on the nation that they will serve. Afterward they will come out with many possessions. 15:15 But as for you, you will go to your ancestors in peace and be buried at a good old age. 15:16 In the fourth generation your descendants will return here, for the sin of the Amorites has not yet reached its limit.”

The promise of descendants for Abram is developed along unwelcome lines. The Lord warns Abraham that his descendants will have to suffer oppression before inheriting the land. Abram might well have thought, ‘Well, perhaps I don’t want a child so much after all!’ The reference is, of course, to the years of hardship that would be suffered in Egypt. So it is with the promise of the gospel: see Rom 5:1ff – justification is followed by tribulation. We must bear a cross if we would wear a crown.

Enslaved and mistreated – Cf. Ex 1:11.

v14 Here is a further promise of what lay beyond the Egyptian captivity. The fulfilment of the promise, notwithstanding an interval of tribulation, is assured of ultimate success.

“In peace” = in tranquility; at ease; without anxiety.

“The fourth generation” – ‘The Hebrews seem to have reckoned time by the generation. In the time of Abraham a generation was an hundred years, thus: Gen 15:16 “In the fourth generation” = in four hundred years (compare Gen 15:13 and Ex 12:40). In Deut 1:35 and Deut 2:14 a generation is a period of thirty-eight years.’ (Easton’s Bible Dictionary)

It would another four hundred years before the conquest of the promised land.

“The sin of the Amorites” – The story of the Israelites’ relationship with the Canaanites is not one of unrelenting hostility:

‘Abraham was allied with Amorites (Gen. 14:13). Judah’s best friend and wife were Canaanites (Gen. 1:5; 1 Chron. 2:3). Judah got Tamar, a local girl, as a wife for his son (Gen. 38:6–11). Killing of Canaanites at Shechem was rebuked by Jacob using the same word for “trouble” Joshua did (Gen. 34:30). He later put a curse on his sons for this atrocity (Gen. 49:5–7). It is interesting to note that the first women mentioned in the New Testament were Canaanites (Matt. 1:3, 5).’ (Paul Ferguson, EDBT)

'The sin of the Amorites has not yet reached its limit'

Gen 15:13 Then the LORD said to Abram, “Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a foreign country. They will be enslaved and oppressed for four hundred years. 15:14 But I will execute judgment on the nation that they will serve. Afterward they will come out with many possessions. 15:15 But as for you, you will go to your ancestors in peace and be buried at a good old age. 15:16 In the fourth generation your descendants will return here, for the sin of the Amorites has not yet reached its limit.”

Why would be so long before Abrahams’ descendants would enter the promised land?

The answer given in v16 is that ‘the sin of the Amorites has not yet reached its limit.’

The designation ‘Amorites’ can stand for one or (as here) all ten (Gen 15:19–21) of the people groups of Canaan.  The extent of their sin is testified in Lev 18:24–25; 20:22–24; Deut 9:4f; 18:12; cf. 1 Kgs 14:24; 21:26; 2 Kgs 21:11; Amos 2:9.

Calvin argues that God had given the land to the Amorites, and would not dispossess them of it without good cause.  Calvin also refers to God’s patience in allowing the Amorites full opportunity for repentance, noting Paul’s teaching that ‘they who indulge themselves in sin, while the goodness and clemency of God invite them to repentance, heap up for themselves a treasure of wrath, (Rom 2:4).’  Calvin adds the pastoral comment that God’s delay in judgement gives us no excuse for lethargy.

Wiersbe stresses that God was giving the Canaanite nations opportunity to repent (cf. 2 Peter 3:8–9; Matt. 23:32).

Mathews (NAC) agrees that the delay in judging the Amorities represents God’s forbearance.  God is more ready to forgive than to condemn, and his judgement, when it finally comes, is not capricious (cf. Gen 18:20-25).

For Kidner, Joshua’s invasion (and, by implication, the other Old Testament wars) is to be seen as an act of justice, rather than of aggression.  God’s people must wait, even though waiting would cost them many years of hardship.

Leupold adopts a similar approach, noting that although we have not yet seen direct evidence of Canaanite iniquity, instances would soon appear, beginning with Sodom.

Kaiser (HSB) notes that the Amalekites deliberately targeted the struggling Israelites, picking off the weak and elderly and brutally murdering them (Deut 25:17f).  In attacking Israel, they were attempting to discredit Israel’s God. If, as some think, Haman was an Amalekite, then his proclamation that all Jews throughout the Persian Empire should be killed on a certain day (Esth 3:8-11) is evidence of the Amalkites’ unrelenting hostility towards the Jews throughout OT times.

Hartley notes that when a nation heaps up sin upon sin, God often judges such a nation by using another nation to drive out its inhabitants.  Many years later, God used the Assyrian army as the means of punishing Israel for their continued sin (Isa 10:5-19).

Waltke & Fredricks see here a pattern that is repeated elsewhere.  God judges nations only when they have become completely saturated with sin (Lev. 18:24–28; 20:23). So it was with the Flood Gen. 6:5, 12) and with Sodom and Gomorrah.   The same would apply even to God’s people themselves (Deut. 28:36–37; 2 Kings 24:14; 25:7).

Wenham adopts a similar approach, but with little discussion or explanation.

Brueggemann reflects on the issue of ‘waiting’, but without addressing the question of the sin of the Amorites.

In his book Fight: A Christian Case for Non-Violence, Preston Sprinkle adopts an approach which is essentially the same as has been outlined above.  He then asks if the Canaanites were given a real opportunity to repent.  He answers in the affirmative, pointing to texts such as Ex 15:14–16; Josh 2:9–11; 5:1; 9:9 that show that God’s power (for example, in delivering his people from Egypt) had been broadcast far and wide among the Canaanite nations.  A specific example who knew of the God of Israel and turned to him is Rahab, Josh 2:10f.  Even thought the rest of the people of Jericho did not share her faith, they were given seven days (while the Israelites marched around their town) in which to repent.

The point is

‘that the seven-day march around the city could be viewed as another offer of grace by the God of Israel, an offer already taken up by Rahab yet rejected by the rest of Jericho’s inhabitants.’

An alternative view

In The Lost World of the Israelite Conquest, John Walton contests the whole notion of a retributive interpretation of the conquest.  He maintains that:

The Hebrew expression translated ‘not yet’ should be understood as meaning, not a transition from one state to another, but a continued state; ‘continues to be.’

The expression translated ‘(not) completed’ should be understood as meaning ‘(not) deferred’.

The word translated ‘sin’ refers more to the punishment of sin, rather than to the sin itself.  In the present case, it would refer to God’s taking the land away from the Amorites and giving it, at a future date, to the Israelites.  In other words, it refers to something that will happen to the Amorites, not to something they themselves are doing (or will do).

For Walton , the passage as a whole would read something like this:-

“Your descendants will be enslaved for 400 years in Egypt, but I will eventually punish Egypt and bring your descendants back to this land. You yourself will live a long life and will die at a ripe old age, and although I have decreed the destruction of the Amorites, that destruction won’t come upon the Amorites who are your friends and allies.”

15:17 When the sun had gone down and it was dark, a smoking firepot with a flaming torch passed between the animal parts. 15:18 That day the LORD made a covenant with Abram: “To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates River—15:19 the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, 15:20 Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaites, 15:21 Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and Jebusites.”

These emblems of God’s glorious presence pass between the animal pieces by themselves, while Abram watches from the sidelines. This was a unilateral covenant; therefore, the certainty of it is based on who God is, not on who or what Abram is. This is just like the covenant of grace: God establishes and confirms it: we don’t make the covenant with God; we merely enter into it by faith.