For the music director; according to the tune of “Lilies;” by the Korahites, a well-written poem, a love song.
45:1 My heart is stirred by a beautiful song.
I say, “I have composed this special song for the king;
my tongue is as skilled as the stylus of an experienced scribe.”
‘Composed for an actual royal wedding and motivated by devotion to an earthly king, this psalm, like all royal psalms, runs beyond what any earthly king could be, to the longed-for Messiah in whom all the glories are true. Likewise it speaks tellingly to the Bride of Christ of her true position, beauty and dedication (2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:27; Rev. 14:4; 19:7; 21:9).’ (NBC)
45:2 You are the most handsome of all men!
You speak in an impressive and fitting manner!
For this reason God grants you continual blessings.
For this reason God grants you continual blessings.
45:3 Strap your sword to your thigh, O warrior!
Appear in your majestic splendor!
45:4 Appear in your majesty and be victorious!
Ride forth for the sake of what is right,
on behalf of justice!
Then your right hand will accomplish mighty acts!
45:5 Your arrows are sharp
and penetrate the hearts of the king’s enemies.
Nations fall at your feet.
45:6 Your throne, O God, is permanent.
The scepter of your kingdom is a scepter of justice.
45:7 You love justice and hate evil.
For this reason God, your God has anointed you
with the oil of joy, elevating you above your companions.
V. 6-9 ‘The seven glories of the king: (i) His divine nature (6). Many emendations have been suggested for the text here, not because there is textual uncertainty but to avoid the ascription of deity to the king. But the text is sound and the OT enigma of the Messiah who is God and who yet worships God (7) awaits its resolution in Jesus (Eph. 1:17; Heb. 1:8); (ii) His upright rule (6, 7): officially (sceptre) and personally (love … hate) the king is holy, (Isa 11:3-5); (iii) His human superiority (7). Outwardly a man among men (your God … companions), there is also the inner secret of his divine anointing (Lk. 4:18); (iv) His fragrant person (8, 2 Cor 2:14); (v) His rich situation (8) where everything outward speaks of royal wealth and everything within is for the delight of the king. (vi) His honoured attendants (9), the kings of the earth gladly providing for the staffing of his household. (vii) The seventh glory of the king is his bride (9). The list began with the king on his throne (6) ; it ends with the shared throne, the bride beside the king (9).’ (NBC)
‘The king is clearly the addressee here, as in vv. 2–5 and 7–9. Rather than taking the statement at face value, many prefer to emend the text because the concept of deifying the earthly king is foreign to ancient Israelite thinking (cf. NEB “your throne is like God’s throne, eternal”). However, it is preferable to retain the text and take this statement as another instance of the royal hyperbole that permeates the royal psalms. Because the Davidic king is God’s vice-regent on earth, the psalmist addresses him as if he were God incarnate. God energizes the king for battle and accomplishes justice through him. A similar use of hyperbole appears in Isa 9:6, where the ideal Davidic king of the eschaton is given the title “Mighty God”’ (NET translation note)
In the middle of this Royal Wedding Song, the royal compliments suddently turn into divine honours and the Messiah is addressed, v6f. This raises the question: If this psalm is Messianic, is not that closely related other wedding poem, the Song of Solomon, also Messianic?
‘In the portrait of the King in the Psalms we have either the most blatant, unrealistic flattery of the successive kings of David’s line, or else the expression of a great ideal, a mirror of the truth held up before each king in turn, awaiting the One in whom all will be fulfilled. The King meets world-opposition (2:1-3; 110:1) but, as Victor (45:3-5; 89:22f) and by the Lord’s activity (2:6, 8; 18:46-50; 21:1-13; 110:1f), he establishes world-rule (2:8-12; 18:43-45; 45:17; 72:8-11; 89:25; 110:5ff), based on Zion (2:6) and marked by morality (45:4, 6; 72:2-4, 7; 101). His rule is everlasting (21:4; 45:6; 72:5); prosperous (72:7, 16) and undeviating in reverence for the Lord (72:18-19). Pre-eminent in gifts, graces and dignity (45:2-7), he is also friend of the poor and enemy of oppression (72:2, 4, 12-14); under him the righteous flourish (72:7). He is remembered for ever (45:17); possesses an everlasting name (72:17), and is the object of unending thanks (72:15). In relation to the Lord he is recipient of everlasting blessing (45:2). He is heir of David’s covenant (89:28-37, 132:11f), and of Melchizedek’s priesthood (110:4). He belongs to the Lord (89:18) and is devoted to him (21:7; 63:1-8, 11). He is his son (2:7; 89:27), seated at his right hand (110:1) and is himself divine (45:6).’ (NBC)
45:8 All your garments are perfumed with myrrh, aloes, and cassia.
From the luxurious palaces comes the music of stringed instruments that makes you happy.
45:9 Princesses are among your honored guests,
your bride stands at your right hand, wearing jewelry made with gold from Ophir.
45:10 Listen, O princess!
Observe and pay attention!
Forget your homeland and your family!
45:11 Then the king will be attracted by your beauty.
After all, he is your master! Submit to him!
v10 ‘Gen 2:24 requires that, from marriage onwards a son should become primarily a husband; great stress is laid here (Listen, consider … give ear) on a daughter becoming a wife. King’s daughter though she is (13), now her whole devotion must be for the king, responding to his love (enthralled, ‘desires for himself’), sensitive to his dignity (honour) and acceptive of his status (lord).’ (NBC)