It is a well-known fact that the New Testament writers often present Jesus as the fulfilment of Old Testament prophecies, or as having come in the spirit or tradition of certain Old Testament personages. It is often inferred from this that stories about who Jesus was and what he did were fictitious accounts, with their sources not in history at all, but in those Old Testament passages. According to New Testament scholar and historian Dale C. Allison (in this interview with Steven Jake), this dates back to D.F. Strauss, who repeatedly argued from typology to fiction.
Allison (while not arguing for the historicity of everything that has been recorded in the Gospels), remarks that we need to be careful here. It is quite plausible, he says, that Jesus engaged in typological interpretations of himself, and that he saw himself (as recorded especially in Matthew) as ‘the prophet like Moses’. This does not necessarily undermine the factuality of the facts upon which those interpretations were based. After all,
See also this post by Garrett Best