The synagogue-worship, developed by and after the exile…was also essentially popular, homelike, familiar, escaping from the exclusiveness of the priestly service. It had four principal parts:
a) the recitation of the shema’, composed of Deut 6:4-9; 11:13-21, and Num 15:37-41, and beginning, “Hear (shema’), O Israel: Yahweh our God is one Yahweh”;
b) prayers, possibly following some set form, perhaps repeating some psalm;
c) the reading by male individuals of extracts from the Law and the Prophets selected by the “ruler of the synagogue,” in later years following the fixed order of a lectionary, as may have been the case when Jesus “found the place”;
d) the targum or condensed explanation in the vernacular of the Scriptures read.
It is questioned whether singing formed a part of the service, but, considering the place of music in Jewish religious life, and its subsequent large place in Christian worship, it is hard to think of it as absent from the synagogue.