Wayne Grudem (Systematic Theology, p1150) notes the following arguments that are advanced in favour of annihilationalism:-
the biblical references to the destruction of the wicked, which, some say, implies that they will no longer exist after they are destroyed (Phil. 3:19; 1 Thess. 5:3; 2 Thess. 1:9; 2 Peter 3:7; et al.);
the apparent inconsistency of eternal conscious punishment with the love of God;
the apparent injustice involved in the disproportion between sins committed in time and punishment that is eternal;
the fact that the continuing presence of evil creatures in God’s universe will eternally mar the perfection of a universe that God created to reflect his glory.
The biblical doctrine of final judgement has several important consequence for our lives here and now.
It satisfies our sense of a need for justice in the world. There is so much in the present world which is not fair. Good people suffer, while evil people get off scot free. Even the judicial system itself is susceptible to bias and bribery. The Bible tells us that there will be a final reckoning, when the ‘books’ (Rev 20:12 – symbolising God’s record of what everyone has done in this life) will be opened.
Grudem (Systematic Theology, p541f) outlines a number of reasons. What follows is based on his discussion.
To be our representative. Jesus obeyed where Adam had failed to obey. This is seen in the parallels between the time of testing in the garden, Gen 2:15-3:7, and Jesus’ time of temptation in the wilderness. It is seen also in Paul’s comparison of Adam and Christ in Rom 5:18f; cf. 1 Cor 15:45,47.
‘Original sin’, like some other terms (‘total depravity’, ‘unconditional election’, ‘limited atonement’, irresistible grace’ come immediately to mind) requires careful definition if it is to provide useful service in theological discussion.
For Calvin, original sin is
a hereditary depravity and corruption of our nature, diffused into all parts of the soul, which first makes us liable to God’s wrath, then also brings forth in us those works which Scripture calls “works of the flesh” (Gal 5:19).
‘The atonement is the work Christ did in his life and death to earn our salvation.’
A. The cause of the atonement
1. The love of God, Jn 3:16.
2. The justice of God, Rom 3:25.
B. The necessity of the atonement
This does not seek to answer the question ‘Why did God purpose to save any people at all?’ But rather, ‘Having purposed to save some, why was the death of Christ the only way this could be achieved?’