• ‘A ransom for many’ – sermon notes

    The 2nd of a pair of sermons on Mark 10:45  “For even the Son of Man did ...

  • ‘God is love, and…’

    Steve Chalke's (and Alan Mann's) book, The Lost Message of Jesus, is, I suppose, ...

  • Biblical foundations of penal substitution 1 – Exodus 12

    "The doctrine of penal substitution states that God gave himself in the person ...

  • Biblical Foundations of Penal Substitution 2 – Leviticus 16

    The Book of Exodus raises the question, 'How can a holy God dwell in the midst ...

  • Biblical foundations of penal substitution 3 – Isaiah 53

    Isaiah 53 (more properly 52:13-53:12) constitutes the fourth 'Servant Song'.  ...

  • Biblical foundations of penal substitution 4 – Mark

    Mark 10:45 - a ransom for many Penal substitution is implied in the word lytron ...

  • Biblical Foundations of Penal Substitution 5 – John’s Gospel

    The Lamb of God John the Baptist introduces Jesus as 'the Lamb of God, who ...

  • Biblical Foundations of Penal Substitution 6 – Romans

    Context Paul teaches in Romans that the universal sinfulness of humankind provokes ...

  • Biblical Foundations of Penal Substitution 7 – Galatians

    Galatians 3:10-13 The image of the crucifixion at 'hanging on a tree' in Acts ...

  • Biblical Foundations of Penal Substitution 8 – 1 Peter

    Christ bore our sins in his body, 1 Pet 2:21-25 The suffering of Christ is ...

  • How old is the doctrine of penal substitutionary atonement?

    It is often thought (and taught) that the early church knew nothing of the ...

  • Must God punish sin?

    Few Christians are willing to do any sustained thinking about sin.  Of course, ...

  • Objections to Penal Substitution 1 – Bible

    A significant portion of Jeffrey, Ovey & Sach's notable work, Pierced ...

  • Objections to Penal Substitution 2 – Culture

    [Go to list of contents for this series of posts] According to Jeffery, Ovey ...

  • Objections to penal substitution 3 – violence

    Having considered objections to the doctrine of penal substitutionary atonement ...

  • Objections to penal substitution 4 – justice

    Continuing this series that summarises (in order to commend) material within ...

  • Objections to penal substitution 5 – God

    The next set of objections to the doctrine of penal substitutionary atonement ...

  • Objections to penal substitution 6 – the Christian life

    Here's the last in this series, summarising responses to objections to the ...

  • Puritans on penal substitution

    In chapter 15 of The Atonement Debate (2008), Stephen Holmes gives an account ...

  • Substutionary atonement: a note to preachers

    Critics of the doctrine of penal substitution, as well as a number of its more ...

  • The self-substitution of God

    How can we, who are so deeply unholy and unrighteous, be reconciled with God, ...